With the arrival of wireless technology, Power over Ethernet (PoE) may seem to be outdated technology.
Power over Ethernet is crucial for powering devices such as VoIP phones, security cameras, and wireless access points over the same UTP cable used for data.
In the early days, PoE technology was a sort of mixed bag of home-brewed proprietary methods. However, in the last ten years, PoE technology has evolved into a safe, reliable IEEE 802.3af standard, as well as the IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) standard. Power over Ethernet is in use everywhere and is an exceptionally viable choice for powering a smart building.
Despite PoE’s remarkable advances, misconceptions about this technology still linger today. Let’s look at a few of the most common myths that surround PoE and debunk them.
1) Power over Ethernet is not reliable.
The fact is Power over Ethernet IS exceedingly reliable. PoE relies on Ethernet, which means it is merely a different take on a well-known technology. This means that a local IT team can corporate PoE into an existing network easily.
PoE has limited interference and enhanced security features, and includes manageability of power sources and battery backups that protect against outages and power spikes.
And PoE has a flexible design. PoE can be positioned wherever needed because this technology does not require an outlet connection. PoE is particularly applicable to wireless access points and digital security cameras.
2) Power over Ethernet is not cost-effective.
One of the main benefits of Power over Ethernet is its cost-saving features. Here are a few.
PoE provides two vital services—power and communications—over a single cable, which cuts the cost of cable in half. In addition, there is no need to install a power outlet next to a powered device (PD) because the power is supplied by the PoE switch or PoE injector (PSE) over the Ethernet cable.
PoE is simple and easy to install by IT teams and does not require an electrician’s expense.
Power over Ethernet makes networking improvements that reduce costs further. With PoE, network devices such as IP cameras or sensors can be mounted away from a power grid without installing more AC lines.
Reducing monthly overhead is paramount. Managed Ethernet switches include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) that increases power consumption control. SNMP is available on managed industrial devices; however, it increases the effectiveness of PoE by allowing the monitoring, reporting and management of power consumption of each interface. With PoE, the devices do not require individual AC to DC converters that consume extra power.
3) Power over Ethernet has limited application.
Earlier versions of PoE technology may have had limited application. However, the latest version—IEEE 802.3bt—allows 90W of power to a PD. Today, the semiconductor industry is actively driving down individual transistors’ power consumption, which allows integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) to accomplish more with less power. As a result, the industry has more power available to a PD, as well as PDs that require less power to do more.
Engineers now have larger power budgets to work with before needing to contemplate the use of offline power and all its attendant expenses. With these facts in mind, it is accurate to say that PoE can meet more application requirements than ever before.
4) Power over Ethernet cannot be used to outfit a building.
On the contrary, Power over Ethernet is revolutionizing smart buildings. At one time, POE was used mainly for VoIP phones and IP security cameras; however, PoE technology has evolved to the point that now it is used to enable numerous devices, which include: human-centric lighting, occupancy sensors, asset tracking, access control, and more.
5) Power over Ethernet is not suitable for the Internet of Things (IoT)
The truth is that PoE technology has become the new favorite of the IoT.
The number of IoT endpoints increases each year. Many of these will be smart sensors or actuators that use only small amounts of power but must be connected to the Internet. As these endpoints require a direct IP address, they must be connected with the use of a local gateway.
Many of today’s more popular wireless protocols continue to struggle with providing IP addressability. As a result, they must be connected utilizing a local gateway that will most likely connect to the Internet using a wired Ethernet connection.
Adding PoE to these local gateways is an inexpensive option. Wireless endpoints require power which is often supplied by primary cell batteries (that need replacement) or the utilization of offline power (that needs an AC-DC converter). The use of PoE eliminates the need for primary cell batteries, offline power, and the wireless connection.
IoT security is always a concern and is closely linked to wireless connectivity. These concerns are greatly lessened with a wired Ethernet connection, as it requires physical access to the endpoint.
Finally, PoE is reliable, stable, and does not experience problems such as RF congestion or dropped packets that need to be re-sent.
6) Power dissipation in the cable is an issue with Power over Ethernet
Engineers are understandably concerned with signal integrity and power dissipation when it comes to conductors initially designed purely for data. So, it is important to note the IEEE 802.3 specifications were developed with these issues in mind.
For example, the IEEE 802.3bt standard requires the following:
- That 90W power must be delivered over all four twisted pairs within the cable.
- A maximum cable length of 100 meters.
- With the use of only two twisted pairs, the maximum DC loop resistance should not exceed 12.5 Ohms.
- The use of cable that is Cat5 or higher.
As long as these specifications are met, power dissipation will not be an issue.
7) The new Power over Ethernet standard requires new hardware.
The IEEE 802.3bt is entirely backward-compatible with IEEE 802.3af (12.95 W) and IEEE 802.3at (25.5 W)—and allows a mixture of PoE standards to coexist in the same network. Therefore, new PSEs or PDs on an existing network will not be needed.
A Last Word About Power over Ethernet
Power over Ethernet technology has kept pace with the evolution of IoT devices and is a safe, reliable power source. With the latest generation of PoE—802.3bt—there is higher power with more efficient delivery and backward compatibility.
To find out a bit more about the benefits of using this amazing technology, click here.
Building out an IT network or network expansion can be as fast or as gradual as your business requires. These days, network expansion is not an “if” but “when” proposition. Security Today estimates an average of 127 devices1 connect to the Internet every second. This ever-increasing rate of connectivity means that the infrastructure needed to support these technologies must be equally as swift.
Thankfully, the basic design of Power over Ethernet (PoE) networking and Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) is quick and simple to set up and use. One device that is rising in popularity is the Ethernet Extender (also called a Network Extender or a LAN Extender). This one device gives network administrators a lot of bang for their buck, as it allows administrators to connect local area networks (LANs) to remote locals.
Ethernet extender kits enable network administrators to extend a LAN beyond its standard 100m limitation using a Registered Jack-11 (Rj11) line.
Ethernet Extenders make it possible to establish high-speed network links between distant locations such as enterprises, campuses, and other localities.
Communication is possible because of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), which allows different network devices to share information. This protocol is useful because networks develop over time, and not all of them are the same hardware or run the same software.
At this point, let’s cover some basics.
What are Ethernet Extenders?
Let’s begin with the Ethernet.
Ethernet is the data-transmission protocol used by power devices (PDs) connected by a LAN. Ethernet technology encompasses a technique called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSM/CD), which enables multiple PDs to share a communication channel over a single cable such as CAT5e.
Next, it is essential to know that one of the Ethernet’s few limitations is that simple PoE transmits signals up to only 100m (328 feet). Many LANs need to span much larger distances (think shopping malls, academic campuses, hotels, sports venues, etc.). Ethernet Extenders lengthen that reach to unite networks that need to travel larger distances.
Ethernet extenders utilize an assortment of transmission technologies and physical media (e.g. copper wire, fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, wireless).
How Do Ethernet Extenders Function?
Copper-based Ethernet extenders use unconditional (without load coils) wire such as unused twisted pairs and alarm circuits. They use copper wiring that has 2-, 4-, and 8-wire alternatives to extend a LAN. Although copper wire transmission does not provide the speeds that fiber-optic does, it does allow the use of existing network-grade copper or CCTV coaxial cable wiring. Ethernet extenders are economical and have low maintenance requirements. This makes them an acceptable alternative to expensive fiber-optic cable.
Connecting a private LAN between distant locations is a challenge. Wi-Fi needs a clear line of vision, special antennas, and is affected by the weather. It may be feasible for distances up to 200m (656 feet) to set up an ordinary Ethernet bridge or router in the middle.
With the use of Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) technology, two LANs are connected over a single twisted pair of wires. Connections of 300m (1,000 feet) at 100Mbps symmetrical or up to 5 miles or more at 128 kbps is achievable.
How Do You Set Up an Ethernet Extender?
Most Ethernet extenders are plug-and-play, so set up is easy.
- First, you will need to setup one of your Ethernet Extenders to operate as the Source unit.
- Power on both units by connecting the power adapters into the wall.
- Then, connect the power to one of your Ethernet Extenders from your Ethernet Extender Kit.
- Plug the Ethernet cable into any of the ports on the back of the Unit. Connect the same Ethernet cable to your Ethernet Switch.
- To Set your device to operate as a source, flip the dip switch to OT or office terminal mode. The RT LED indication will turn off.
- Then connect your telephone cable to the wall.
- Connect the adjacent side of your telephone cable to the VDSL2 interface located on the front of the unit.
You will then need to setup your remaining Ethernet Extender to operate as the destination unit. To set the device to operate as the destination, flip the dip switch to RT or Remote Terminal mode. The LED RT indicator will turn on.
- Plug your Ethernet cable into any of the ports on the back of the unit.
- Plug the adjacent side of the Ethernet cable to your powered device such as a wireless access point.
- Connect your telephone cable to the VDSL2 interface located on the front of the unit. Connect the adjacent side of your telephone cable to the wall. The link light will continuously flash and turn solid once it successfully synchronizes with the other unit.
Versa Technology Ethernet Extenders
Ethernet extender kits from Versa Technology can easily extend a network up to at least 9,000ft (approximately 1.7 miles). These products support high-speed connectivity without any additional copper wiring. Versa Technology offers Ethernet extender kits for every networking environment.
Our VX-VEB160G4 Ethernet Extender Kit has the following features:
- Interface: 4 x 10/100/1000Base-T, 1 x VDSL2
- Speed DS/US: Up to 190Mbps/Up to 110Mbps
- Power Supply: 12VDC over 2.1mm DC Jack
- Power Consumption: 4.5 Watts Max
- Operating Temperature: -20 degrees C to 65 degrees C
- Standard: IEEE 802.3 compliant
- Distance: Up to 9,000 feet
Versa Technology’s VX-700LRP-KIT is a single-port, long-reach industrial Ethernet extender kit that features:
- Network Connector: 10/100/1000 Mbps
- Operating Temperature: -40 degrees to 75 degrees C
- Type: End-Span (CO)/Mid-Span (RT)
- Standard: 802.3at
- Max. PoE Power Budget: 30 watts
- Distance: Up to 3,900 feet
- Power Requirements: 48-57V DC
A Word About PoE+
The difference between PoE and PoE+ is power.
The original PoE standard (IEEE 802.3af) delivers up to 15.4 watts of DC power to a device. Since the development of this standard, a whole new generation of devices that require higher levels of power has evolved.
PoE+ (IEEE 802.3at) is the latest standard and provides up to 25.5 watts using CAT5e/6 UTP cable. PoE+ is needed to support devices such as Pan/Tilt/Zoom cameras, video IP phones, and alarm systems.
Our PoE Ethernet extenders are simple play-and-plug devices that support various distances, are IEEE-compliant, and can be daisy-chained to support longer spans.
Upgrading a LAN with a new system that communicates using Internet Protocol (IP) technology is an expensive and monumental task. And changing the wiring infrastructure can be even more costly and time-consuming.
The use of Ethernet extenders is the solution to this problem. They provide Ethernet connectivity over existing coaxial cable and even over old legacy telephone/communication cable.
The use of Ethernet extenders is simple, vastly more cost-efficient, and extends the life of your wiring infrastructure.
Internet Protocol (IP) and analog camera systems continue to dominate company surveillance strategies despite top technologies like artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things tops in cybersecurity trends in 2020. Since IP cameras don’t have the cabling requirements that analog cameras have and have more megapixels for higher resolution, they tend to be holistically cost-effective, especially in the long-run. On the flip-side, analog cameras have come a long way from the basic closed-circuit domes recording images for perusal later. Today’s analog can eliminate some cabling by using video baluns with CAT5e or CAT6 cables, better leveling out the playing field. With two classically different choices, which would work best?
It depends on your company needs and budget. Some buildings, especially many older buildings, are coax-wired for analog closed-circuit television (CCTV) and it might not make a lot of sense to stakeholders to update to an IP camera system or perhaps a hybrid analog/IP camera system. Many might argue that analog is outdated and that the features and functionality of IP camera systems make conversions and updates a no-brainer.
IP Camera Systems Still the Gold Standard
Digital’s been around so long that many people forget that analog, once king, is still part of the surveillance camera landscape. IP camera initial imaging is analog, but that image gets converted to digital long before it hits your Network Video Recorder (NVR). IP camera systems allow greater distance from your local area network, making high-quality surveillance less cumbersome. According to a recent report by Technavio, the IP camera market will grow by $8.47 billion from now to 2024.
Pros to the IP camera system include:
- Higher video quality than analog
- Choice of narrow or wide field-of-view
- Multiple cameras on one unit
- Most IP cameras are Power over Ethernet (PoE) enabled
- Ethernet cables are less expensive than Siamese coaxial
- Uses Network Video Recorder (NVR)
- More expensive than analog
- Need IP address set-up so not completely plug-and-play like analog
- Uses more bandwidth than analog
- Uses larger files so need more storage space
An IP camera system can cover up to 1.5 miles from your LAN, more than analog with help of wireless access points (WAPs). But if you’re not needing that kind of coverage, analog may work for you.
Image Credit: https://mammothsecurity.com/
CCTV Analog Cameras and Video Baluns
Analog cameras work over coaxial cables not a LAN network so you really don’t need to worry about how much bandwidth you’re using. If you’re trying to use analog cameras on a wireless network, be prepared for interference and distorted views from cell phones and fluorescent lighting. Since analog cameras work within a closed-circuit system, there’s traditionally not a lot of flexibility. But that’s changed as baluns work with analog cameras especially in buildings already cabled with CAT3, CAT5, CAT5e and CAT6 wires.
Pros to analog camera systems:
- Easy set-up especially if a business is already wired with coax
- Video baluns
- Can run 4 CCTV cameras with CAT5e or CAT6
- HD analog steps up the analog game by imaging similarly to IP HD cameras
- Bandwidth not an issue or less of one
- Uses less storage than IP camera systems
- Analytics tend to be more basic
- Video storage not within the camera
- Less imaging options with a narrow field-of-view
- Conversion process to Digital Video Recorder (DVR)
- DVR ports limited
Analog is the most basic, but HD analog adds scalability by adding the ability to convert to IP systems.
Converting Analog to Digital IP Systems
Perhaps you’ve installed an analog system or are nursing along an analog legacy system and find that it’s not doing the job you envisioned it to do. Do you need to dismantle it and start over or can it be converted to digital? Unless your analog system’s cameras and DVR break down and need replacing, you don’t have to tear out the analog system and convert to an IP camera system.
If you’ve got the bones, meaning the coax or the CAT cables throughout the building, already in place, your stakeholders may want you to make use of it. If your existing DVR is not network-enabled, replace it with a network-enabled DVR. You will need an Ethernet cable, a PoE switch, and an analog-to-IP converter so that you can view your images through your browser. The conversion process tends to some expense depending on how many cameras you are enabling. You won’t need to convert every analog camera to IP if you’re going hybrid.
Andreas Conrad, head of Marketing for Qognify says that cybersecurity is “an interaction of cameras, network, hardware, VMS, interfaces/integrations — if there’s a gap in one of these areas, the whole system is in danger of being insecure.” While surveillance may be trending to the edge of AI and the IoT, the market for both analog and IP camera systems isn’t going to become legacy anytime soon. Both are secure, but your choice will run to location, imaging needs, and budget.
Is your LED lighting system vulnerable to cyber intruders? One of the hottest issues right now regarding the Internet of Things (IoT) is security. As more things become connected, new levels of exposure are discovered.
Smart lighting is a good example. Other terms for “smart” might be connected, IoT, Industrial Control System, and Operational Technology (OT), all of which are similar, although not entirely synonymous.
It is important to note that connected lighting systems without an IP address communicate only with devices within the building. They pose a relatively low-security threat because a person has to be in the building to attack the system.
However, devices with an Internal Protocol (IP) address communicate outside the building and are most at risk. Connected LEDs with security flaws can be hijacked by a bad actor who is not even in the building. Today, there is a comparatively small number of these devices in use. However, Persistence Market Research forecasts that globally, consumers will spend over $125 billion on LED lighting by 2025.
So, can your LED lighting system get hacked?
Depending upon the quality of installation and the type of design your system has, the answer could be yes. Smart bulbs are among the most popular automated products on the IoT. According to TechTarget:
A smart bulb is an Internet-capable LED light that can be customized, scheduled, and controlled remotely.
However, a smart office could be vulnerable to hackers through its light bulbs if the system is infrared enabled. Attackers can use the invisible infrared light emitted from smart bulbs to steal personal data as delineated above.
Murtura Jadliwala, a research expert at the University of Texas, San Antonio (UTSA, says):
Think of the bulb as another computer. These bulbs are now poised to become a much more attractive target for exploitation even though they have very simple chips.
What types of attacks should I look for?
Hacking activity on connected lighting systems often takes the form of these three attack methods: Distributed Denial of Service, Sniffing, and Vectoring.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
In a DDoS attack, an online service system is flooded with traffic from multiple sources. This type of attack happens most often in residential lighting products, such as Wi-Fi-enabled light bulbs.
Solution: Suggest that the IT department test any devices with an IP address before it is used.
In sniffing, the intruder listens into a network’s data traffic to capture a unit of data (called a packet). Because the packet is not encrypted, it can be changed by the hacker (e.g., seizing a lighting bulb output valve and turning off all the lights in an office).
Solution: Try to use only encrypted systems. For non-encrypted systems, a virtual LAN (VLAN) can be integrated between the light fixtures or network switches.
In vectoring, an attacker enters an unsecured network system to secure access to other systems via the network.
Solution: Secure systems. Use encryption, authentication, and air gaps between crucial systems.
Best Practices for LED Lighting System Security
While the cybersecurity industry has a great depth of knowledge and experience in this field, for the lighting industry, security is a relatively new issue. However, ensuring that networked lighting systems are a strong and secure link to the IoT is a major focus of the lighting industry these days.
As lighting system security continues to develop, it is essential to be as informed as possible. Let’s take a look at best practices for lighting system professionals that can enhance LED lighting system security:
1. Familiarize yourself with cybersecurity “hygiene.”
Make sure you know about basic concepts and protocols.
2. Discuss cybersecurity with your client.
Make sure your client knows about the security needs of the product. Be ready to talk to IT department personnel. Be able to answer questions. For challenging questions, help your client contact the manufacturer.
3. Ensure adequate encryption.
In a May 2018 bulletin entitled Cyber Security for Lighting Systems, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) recommends AES 128-bit encryption.
4. Provide an adequate authentication method.
The essence of authentication is to make sure only devices that trust each other can share data. The FEMP recommends the use of both a public and private key.
5. Protect the lighting network.
Provide a firewall. A virtual local area network (VLAN) should be added if the lighting and corporate networks touch.
6. Articulate client responsibilities.
Clients should be advised about administrator permission delineation, the importance of software update installations, changing passwords, etc.
7. Secure after commissioning.
It is a FEMP recommendation that any radios used to commission the system to be turned off after use. However, if the radios are needed for ongoing system operation, they should at least be secured.
8. Research products.
Educate yourself. Learn to evaluate products. Be able to compare products/manufacturers that have similar security features but implement them differently. Discover suppliers that use vigorous security features, can explain them, and will support you when needed.
The lighting industry’s new connected LED lighting systems present compelling advances in energy and operational efficiencies. However, the integrity and security of these innovative devices must be guarded.
The bottom line: Cybersecurity takes diligence, dynamic management, and monitoring, as well as the selection of the right product.
With a VX-GPU2626 (V2) L2+ 24-Port Managed GbE UPOE Switch (2000W), you have access to advanced security features:
- VLAN: Support for up to 4K VLANS simultaneously.
- IGMP v1/v2/v3 Snooping: Limits bandwidth-intensive multicast traffic to only the requesters.
- MLD v1/v2 Snooping: Delivers IPv6 multicast packets only to the required receivers.
- Traffic Monitoring: Displays a visual chart of network traffic of all devices and monitors every port at any time from switches.
- IP Source Guard: Prevents illegal IP addresses from accessing specific ports on the switch.
- DHCP Snooping: Acts like a firewall between untrusted hosts and trusted DHCP servers.
Security Today estimates more than 31 billion connected IoT devices to be connected by the end of 2020, experts are expecting this number to grow to 75 billion by 2025.
These days, end-users and the devices they use are asking more from networks. Where once existed simple A to B network configurations, we find mesh systems developing through the devices themselves that serve as relays to other nodes.
Wireless access points connected with Ethernet over Cat6 and Cat6A cables are providing high-performance wireless experiences. Sensors in light fixtures capture usage and occupancy data and make the workplace and the home more efficient.
More data and more power are being delivered to the device and providing increasingly sophisticated capabilities. High-Power PoE technology is the infrastructure supporting the last-mile IoT demands of 2020.
Network administrators have a big job in front of them. To be future-ready, networks need to address increasing capacity needs of both speed and power.
New Technologies Fueled By High Powered PoE
While the idea of IoT has been in existence for a long time, a collection of recent advances in several different technologies has made it practical.
What is the Internet of Things, Oracle
- Sensors are cost-efficient and reliable and are the “sensing” point for automated and artificial intelligence platforms.
- Devices communicate using network protocols that allow them to connect to the Cloud and scale as required, making building management cost-efficient.
- Machine learning and AI allow the implementation of technology to become smarter and more custom over time.
- Low-powered devices are at the core of these advancements, making them affordable and desirable tools.
Places Where High-Powered PoE Is Showing Up
Having the access and visibility provided by smart devices and platforms not only helps systems operate efficiently, they also help reduce the need staff-hours on routine tasks and allow management to prioritize and dedicate staff to more people-centric responsibilities.
IoT technologies, for example, help facilities managers prevent downtime through the collection of sensor data.
Lighting platforms and sensor systems implement algorithms to turn lights off/on depending on occupancy, order parts, provide maintenance schedules, and replacement alerts for bulbs before they fail. The same sensors are also embedded to help automated systems adjust temperatures and switch to the low-power mode when buildings are unoccupied. They can also provide reports and analytics and send alerts in real-time.
Digital signage can send automated and real-time alerts and wayfinding responses to traffic congestion to help keep traffic flow smooth for commuters.
Healthcare practitioners use wearable technology attached to monitoring equipment to monitor heart rates, glucose levels, blood pressure and other life-saving technologies to track patient conditions in real-time. Wearables can also ensure that patients are identified and not subject to medical mistakes.
Healthcare facilities use definition pan-tilt-zoom security cameras to help security departments keep vulnerable patients safe and monitor secure areas.
A Look Under The Hood At High-Powered PoE
Power over Ethernet (PoE) is an access layer technology. It combines data and electrical power, delivering them over a single Ethernet cable. The simplicity of installation allows the end-user the freedom to remotely install without the need for an electrician.
The latest PoE standard was ratified by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and is 802.3bt. Also known as Type 4, 802.3bt has reached power delivery levels of up to 90W of PoE per port.
Type 1, IEEE 802.3af, delivers up to 15.4W of DC power, running over 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T. Power can be delivered over two of the four twisted pairs on Cat5e cabling or higher.
Type 2, IEEE 802.3at, also known as the “PoE+” standard, delivers up to 30W. It supports 1000BASE-T over CAT 5 or 6. It also uses two of the four cable pairs.
Both Type 3 and Type 4 PoE are designated by the IEEE 802.3bt standard. Both defined PoE standards deliver power over four pairs. They support 10GBASE-T, 5GBASE-T, and 2.5GBASE-T over CAT5e or higher. The primary difference is that Type 3 supports up to 60W per port, while Type 4 is up to the full 90W power level per port.
PSE Support For Type 4 Devices
To keep pace with the end-user technologies under development, manufacturers of IT networking equipment are developing more sophisticated, flexible switch options, featuring very high power budgets. A power budget refers to the amount of the available power available for allocation between ports to deliver to the end devices on a switch.
The VX-GPU2626, for example, is a (V2) L2+ 24-Port Managed GbE UPOE Switch with 2000W of available power. This easy-to-use, manage, and install switch was designed to support PoE for enterprise smart-building implementations.
- IP phones – Voice over Internet Protocol (IP) phones or IP phones use voice over IP technologies to place telephone calls over an IP network instead of traditional telecommunications phone services.
- IP cameras – Internet Protocol cameras are digital video devices that receive control data and send image data via an IP network. They are commonly used for surveillance but do not use analog closed-circuit television cameras, only a local area network (LAN).
- High-powered wireless access points – These high-performance devices can transmit massive amounts of data for streaming and other bandwidth-intensive technologies.
- Intelligent LED lighting systems for the enterprise include sensors, power monitoring, and networked communications. They are dimmable, can boost well being of occupants, and reduce energy consumption.
For situations where a high-powered device needs to connect to a legacy (pre-Ethernet) switch, the VX-1000GPP Industrial Hardened Gigabit Single-Port 90W PoE Injector can supply power to the PD, while the PSE transmits data.
Final Thoughts On High Powered PoE
The introduction of the Ethernet IEEE 802.3bt (Type 4) standard has opened up a world of flexible implementations that at one time required the services of an electrician. This cost savings is also making it easier for the consumer to buy. Faster, easier deployments due to PoE have unlocked the potential for more of these high-powered devices to change to the intelligent landscape.
This blog gets its inspiration from an article that originally appeared on Gensler.com, titled The Office Building of The Future Should Be An Essential Part of Its Community, based on a review of the breakthrough technologies and design found in Two Legacy West Concept in Plano, Texas.
The business landscape has dramatically transformed since March when the COVID-19 shutdown began. Though businesses are reporting that productivity levels are high, they find that workers from home are less likely to feel engaged and in touch with real-time company processes.
Solitude has left a void. Where once colleagues engaged in human interaction, such as learning, mentoring, or the opportunity to provide expertise in collaborative environments within the workplace–workers now appear to have lost touch with the shared purpose of the organization. They now rely on digital technology to hear from colleagues.
Today we recognize that office buildings are no longer just containers for people but rather an experience supercharger. Office performance should be less about maximizing workplace density and more about the quality of the space and the experience it delivers.
Building Layout Looks And Feels Different
The vision for smart office buildings is that they flow within a vibrant community much more readily than structures in a traditional office park. The authors believe that offices should integrate within the nearby residential neighborhood. The building itself offers something different and more natural than typical designs.
Moving between a variety of work settings or between floors gives more opportunities for interaction and engagement. The focus is more on the journey and less on the destination. And easily moving our work into all-season outdoor spaces can provide a breath of fresh air.
Image courtsey Gensler.com, Crafting Our Way Into a New Era of Human Connection
Rather than open-plan floors, the future office will be “open section” — providing multi-level settings where views, movements, and ideas are not constrained by windows and walls. That’s better for health and well-being and better for the environment.
Rather than the typical ground floor, where security and building administrative offices are housed and go dark after 5 pm, Fulbright and Lyons suggest approaching this space with the intention of developing an 18-hour city space. After hours and destination shopping venues could take up space, not unlike shops off a hotel lobby.
Destination retail is also undergoing a paradigm shift. Community-oriented programs like health centers, tool libraries, classrooms, and co-working spaces can serve both populations — office tenants and neighbors — at different times.
Smart Buildings Offer Relevant Metrics
The next-generation office building will be smarter and ready to respond to our needs: it will tell us about the indoor and outdoor air quality that day, which workspaces are open, who else is there, and even where to get drinks and snacks. It can call us a private elevator or map a path to other amenities and create interactive displays for us along the journey. Carbon emissions or energy and water-use will be measured in real-time and reported to tenants.
Using tools like Graph by Gensler, these building metrics and spatial analytics can be collected, reported, and compared across portfolios, companies, or the real estate industry. With standardized data sets, designers can use this information to make occupancy and space utilization more dynamic and flexible.
Graph by Gensler
Traditionally in office buildings, shared common areas like lobbies, amenities, and outdoor spaces are counted as rentable but not usable areas, contributing to lower efficiency and the building’s “loss factor.” But these are precisely the kind of spaces that can enrich the experience for occupants and attract a community of tenants to the office. They will be part of the “gain factor” that adds value for tenants in the future.
Seamless Interconnection Between Physical-Digital Systems
The prerequisite for creating a seamless physical-digital system is twofold: Jordan Goldstein and David Kramer (also of Gensler of Design Innovation and Design Experience respectively):
- A comprehensive human-centered design strategy addresses the physical, digital, brand, and service design components of a user journey.
- A foundational technology platform offers plug-and-play functionality for whatever digital solution each unique journey might need.
A baseline set of modern conveniences can provide an example for an entry experience built on a foundational software platform.
Imagine entering an office building lobby. An automated arrival procedure verifies your identity through touchless registration, such as facial recognition or personal devices. If you’re a visitor, a virtual concierge greets you either through kiosks or personal devices. Dynamic and personalized digital wayfinding guides users to the most efficient pathways safe from others, including touchless elevator systems. This new paradigm is all managed through a single, centralized, fully integrated software system with an open framework to allow owners and operators to pick and choose which features are essential for their organization.
Image courtesy Gensler.com, Fusing Architecture and Technology To Re Enter A New World
Post-pandemic, the reality is that facilities teams and organizations need to approach the workplace with a different strategy. The workplace is no longer a single physical place. It must now be approached as an adaptive collection of connected physical and digital spaces that serve as a trusted network for business continuity, social engagement, and continued professional growth.
The Intersection Between Building and IoT Support Systems
Ironically, with an overall design framework like the ones described by these two sets of Gensler writers for the future smart office buildings —the more advanced the technology becomes, the more the workplace feels more personalized and secure.
Advancements are simplifying the experience. The right obstacles are put in place to protect while other areas are removed, like biometric identification and wayfinding apps that talk to smartphones.
Insights taken from home workers productivity during the COVID shutdown can inform designs that allow solitude when required, while still providing a variety of inviting collaboration spaces.
Ground floor designs can integrate retail and other outlets rather than security and building administrative offices alone. Integrating the community during non-work hours will allow commercial building owners to capture more revenue while providing more natural and welcoming spaces for all occupants.
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“IoT is already well established and still set to grow, with more than 41 billion IoT devices in use by 2027. What’s more, Gartner predicts that more than 80 percent of enterprise IoT projects will include an AI component by 2022.”
Przemek Lopaciuk, ReadWrite | These Three Industries are About to be Hit by AIoT
Additional to this gaining popularity in connected devices, before the COVID outbreak, Embedded AI in support of IoT things/objects was on track to reach $4.6B globally by 2024. AI in industrial machines was on track to reach $415M globally by 2024, with collaborative robot growth at 42.5% CAGR. Machine learning will be playing a role in this growth surge.
Industries like transportation, supply chain, energy, and manufacturing are reaping the benefits of the added computing, analytical speeds, and other solutions that AI provides within the IoT context. The development of AI is a way to more fully manage connected technologies to speed up work processes and help eliminate human error.
How AIoT Works And What Is Better About It
“In the artificial intelligence of things, you can think of the internet of things devices as the digital nervous system, while artificial intelligence is the brain of the system.”
Bernard Marr, Forbes Contributor | What Is The Artificial Intelligence Of Things? When AI Meets IoT
AI technology combined with the Internet of Things in practical applications allows infrastructure to achieve more efficient IoT operations. Human-machine interactions will improve and enhance data management and analytics. AI will fill gaps where human limitations impede results.
Developers are embedding AIoT into software, chipsets, and platforms. Intel®, for example, offers a range of ICs that support supercomputing, edge-to-cloud, deep learning libraries, and ingredient chip solutions for other developers like Microsoft Azure and AWS. One idea under discussion is powerful implementation between connected-devices that would allow them to straddle between edge and cloud computing, speeding up delivery when needed, while allowing data to be stored to go to the cloud.
AI collects, harnesses, and implements data to manage industrial operations. It can use data from its operation or data supplied from external sources or a combination of both. AI with IoT will optimize machine-to-machine communication.
“IoT networks with both autonomic and cognitive functional components provide intelligent control for neural transport (detection and triggering of communications) and connect the overall system. The IoT technology market will benefit from engineering design in terms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cognitive computing placement in centralized and edge computing locations.”
Research and Markets, Artificial Intelligence AI in Big Data
The Edge Supports Data Loads Generated By AIoT
Edge computing speeds up data-heavy technologies because it keeps all of the processing and data much closer to its point of origin. Data doesn’t have to travel as far or compete with other incoming transmissions for bandwidth, saving money.
When you’re continually using massive amounts, not having to transport it to server operations can rack up significant savings.
AI synergizes solutions by allowing the inclusion of more advanced predictive capabilities. The ability to tap into trends that are transforming product and service ecosystems like the consumer, industrial, and enterprise verticals where the response to personalized service edges out competitors (no pun intended). AI is increasingly becoming an integral component of business operations, including supply chains, sales, and marketing processes, product and service delivery, and support models.
Smart factories and warehouses, which many agree have been the earliest adopters of IoT technologies, will have the next competitive advantage because they already have their IoT infrastructure in place. Having more of your operation online allows AI to leverage data points.
Remote sensors, smart meters, and production machines will not only be the source of operation critical insights, but they will be able to respond intelligently to AI implementations within their environments due to their capability to process the vast amounts of data.
The right products will reach the market more quickly. Production lines will automatically factor in external market demand, by providing new insights from this harvested operational data.
AI In Healthcare
AI in healthcare can emulate human cognition and the analysis, interpretation, and comprehension of medical data, using a combination of complex algorithms and software. Additionally, data collected through remote sensors has the potential to keep people safe from infection, especially during highly contagious illnesses like COVID19. AI is essential whenever the amounts and complexity of data are this massive.
The categories where AI applications assist providers include diagnosis and treatment recommendations, patient engagement and adherence, and administrative activities. In many instances, AI outperforms humans in healthcare tasks but due to ethical issues, the idea of large-scale implementation is still in the future.
AI appears in healthcare in a variety of forms.
- Machine learning
- Language processing
- Rule-based expert systems
- Robotic automation
- Diagnosis and treatment applications
AI And The Smart City
To harness intelligence from the big data pools collected by IoT devices around urban environments, authorities, businesses and residents need the analytical capabilities that artificial intelligence and machine learning bring to the table.
AI is making smart city roadways more responsive and even more anticipatory. One category that many have seen for some time is the smart traffic light. Sensor information monitoring traffic flow and vehicle detection shortens lights when no cars are present saving, commuters valuable travel time, and reducing frustration. Traffic monitoring systems also issue alerts in real-time to divert traffic to circumvent accidents, construction, and other situations as they arise.
Digital Signage And On-Demand Multimedia Content
Live video feeds and real-time surveillance fulfill the need for rapid transmission of diverse ranges of information in commercial environments. Electronic displays are becoming more targeted in the ability to present information to the public. AI can filter through massive amounts of data to respond to specific changes in an environment. The ability to detect changes will allow terminals to provide the right updates as needed. AI takes smart signage to new levels of relevance within the context of a smart city, shopping experience, or transportation hub.
AI in smart cities is going to play a big role in making urbanization smarter and growth sustainable, making the cities more convenient. Advanced features will improve environments where residents live, walk, and shop.
Final Thoughts On Leveraging AI With The IoT
This is a developing story. Having AI and analytics allows people to harvest insights from IoT data that is far too big for the human mind to grasp, much the same as a crane allows humans to lift materials and reach higher when constructing a skyscraper. AI is a fantastic tool. It really is the next stage of “cashing in” on all of the connectivity that the IoT brings.
A PoE camera system is an excellent way to monitor a business or home. More cost-effective and efficient than traditional surveillance equipment, PoE set-ups are also easier to install and expand upon. With the PoE IP camera world changing rapidly, however, selecting the right system can be overwhelming.
Here are a few considerations to take into account when trying to select the best PoE camera system for your needs.
Indoor Versus Outdoor PoE Camera System
The first step in choosing the right camera system is to decide whether you want cameras indoors, outdoors, or a combination of both. Outdoor PoE cameras are waterproof and built to last, even when continually exposed to the elements. They come in a range of protection ratings depending on the potential impact of materials the camera needs to withstand.
Indoor cameras are less expensive than outdoor cameras, but they are still durable and available with special features like Pan/Tilt/Zoom (PTZ) capabilities and audio recording.
PoE cameras are available in four designs. The type of camera you select for your system will depend on variables like space, features, and budget.
Box cameras are the traditional style of camera used in indoor surveillance systems. They tend to be durable and long-lasting but may require an external light source in poorly-lit areas.
A bullet camera is essentially a box camera with a protective outer shell. These are sometimes used in outdoor situations where the camera and lens require protection from rain, snow, or intense sun. Bullet cameras often feature larger lenses for an enhanced visual field.
Dome cameras are small cameras located inside a transparent, protective dome. These cameras are usually mounted on the ceiling and come in standard, mini, and micro sizes.
Turret cameras, also known as mini-dome or eyeball cameras, are small and feature a ball-and-socket design. Their structure makes them popular for PoE systems, and they can be installed both vertically and horizontally. Turrets and domes are less intrusive than other types of cameras.
IP cameras are far more powerful than analog cameras and the resolution has gotten much higher. The most common resolution cameras on the market today include: 1080p (2MP), 1440p (4MP), 1920p (5MP), and 4K/2160p (8MP). The higher the image quality, the wider the field of view, and the greater the need for bandwidth and storage capacity.
Special Camera Features
Both indoor and outdoor cameras are available with special features.
PTZ (Pan, Tilt, Zoom).
A camera with PTZ capability can pan out for a broader view, tilt up or down, or rotate to increase the visual field and zoom in on areas of interest. This feature offers the most control over focal length.
Cameras with an audio recording feature have a built-in or external mic and transmit sound in one or two directions.
Cameras equipped with night vision use infrared technology or EXIR (extended infrared) to provide good vision in dark areas or at night.
Cameras with a motion detection mode only come on when triggered by movement, saving on video footage and storage.
Number of Cameras
The number of cameras needed will depend on the square footage you want to be covered and the types of cameras in the system. High-quality cameras with wide-angle lenses provide a greater field of vision enabling the installation of fewer cameras. Keep in mind, however, that a business can be liable for nearly everything that happens on its property. For this reason, more cameras may need to be installed.
Once the type and number of cameras have been determined, the best networking option will become more evident. There are essentially three ways to connect cameras to the network:
- PoE Switch
- PoE Injector
- PoE Network Video Recorder (NVR) and Router
PoE switches provide power to the network and can support from four to 48 cameras on a single system. All you have to do is connect the PoE cameras directly to the PoE switch and it will provide both data and power.
For networks that lack a PoE switch, a PoE injector between the camera and the router provides power to the PoE camera. Another option for the non-PoE router is a PoE Network Video Recorder which connects the router to the PoE camera.
PoE Camera System Pricing
The price of IP cameras is now more affordable than ever before and higher resolution won’t necessarily add significantly to the price. Depending on the type of camera, special features are either standard or optional.
As far as switches go, pricing varies depending on capabilities. Highly customizable and immensely powerful systems can now come together at a relatively affordable cost.
Contact us for more information or to obtain a custom quote.
A team of NASA scientists has turned to Ethernet to capture clear video footage on Mars. The use of a camera and a laser mounted on the front bumper of an autonomous or semi-autonomous planetary rover called the K-REX2 has solved image quality in airless environments. Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology connecting the camera and laser to sensors, takes advantage of power and data delivery capability over a single cable to run these low-powered smart devices (PD) in space.
Not a part of the recent Mars 2020 mission, this nimble little vehicle is an exciting addition to upcoming missions to the moon and beyond. Ara Nefian, the Senior Scientist from Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies (SGT/KVR) and NASA’s Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG), based at Moffett Field close to Silicon Valley in California, have taken on the task of developing of the K-REX2 rover.
SGT is an award-winning, nationwide service provider of high-value engineering, mission operations, scientific, and IT solutions to the federal government. Based in Greenbelt, MD, the company has received excellence awards in 2001 and 2005 for their work as contractors at the Goddard Space Flight Center.
NASA Team Develops Planetary Rover Using Ethernet Connected Video Navigation System.
Ethernet Supported Technologies In The Navigation System
Image of the K-REX2 Rover bumper courtesy vision-systems.com.
As of June 2020, the team has been running night experiments on the Roverscape test facility to finetune the navigation setup, which comprises two main components. The multi-dot laser projector and camera, seen above, are designed to provide the granularity needed to avoid obstacles over rugged terrain.
Another of the challenges these technologies address is the weight constraints of the navigation system. These lightweight, low PDs are more efficient to transport to these faraway locations than older technologies. These systems are always on, making them ideal candidates for Ethernet power delivery. They can navigate using sensors to detect obstacles, even in areas that are in total darkness.
Earlier Generation Rovers Successfully Launched To Mars
Over the years, NASA has sent a total of five rovers: Sojourner, Spirit & Opportunity, Curiosity, and Perseverance.
1. The Sojourner Rover was part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission
- Landed in July 1997
- It was the first robot on the surface of Mars
- Weight 23lbs and traveled at a top speed of 0.02 mph
- Carried two instruments
2 & 3. The Spirit & Opportunity Rovers Mars Exploration Mission
- Landed January 2004
- Finding evidence of water on Mars
- Weight 374lbs each and traveled at a top speed of 0.1 mph
- Carried five instruments
NASA’s Opportunity Rover Mission lasted 15 years, far beyond the original 90-day plan. The rover communication system failed as the result of a severe Mars-wide dust storm. Its final communications came on June 10, 2018. Thanks to this mission, scientists found proof that ancient Mars had water. The rover lasted 60 times longer than designed.
4. The Curiosity Rover Mars Science Laboratory Mission
- Landed August 2012
- Finding out if Mars once had what life needs: lasting water and the right chemicals to support life
- Weight 1,982lbs and traveled at a top speed of 0.09 mph
- Carried ten instruments
5. The Perseverance Mars 2020
- Landing February 2021
- Look for signs of past or present life. See if humans could one day explore.
- Weight 2,260lbs and travels at a top speed of 0.09 mph
- Carries seven instruments
More About The Perseverance
The Mars 2020 mission launched on an Atlas V-541 from Cape Canaveral on July 30, 2020, carrying the Perseverance, a large roving vehicle sent to Mars surface to conduct mobile studies of the surface environment. The rover will review habitability factors, past life, and collect samples to be evaluated and provide insight to help NASA prepare for future missions.
The Perseverance, courtesy NASA.
In contrast to the K-REX2, the larger Perseverance rover has an equipment deck that will deliver the Mars helicopter to a separate area for test flights. NASA teams have equipped it with the following instruments for scientific investigation.
- The Mastcam-Z camera
- WATSON camera
- MEDA environmental instrument
- RIMFAX radar imager
- PIXL x-ray fluorescence spectrometer
- SHERLOC UV Raman spectrometer
- SuperCam chemical analyzer
- MOXIE oxygen generation experiment
The MOXIE and the electronics required to support test instruments are mounted on or below the rover equipment deck.
The Mars 2020 spacecraft will land in the Jezero Crater on the Mars surface on February 18, 2021. Perseverance will drop the Mars Helicopter and move aside for an experimental technology test flight that involves hovering three meters above the surface.
K-REX2 Drilling Capabilities
Though deployment of the K-REX2 is still in the future, it is interesting to note the capabilities it will need to carry out its mission. The Atacama Rover Astrobiology Drilling Studies (ARADS) team is developing its plan for K-REX2 drilling on Mars. Between 2016 and 2019, ARADS Teams have held yearly, month-long field tests in Chile’s Atacama Desert, one of the places closest to a Mars-like environment on earth. They are using these site visits to develop strategies for collecting and analyzing samples.
Soil samples will also be scanned for biochemical analysis. These instruments will look for molecules that provide tell-tale biomarkers that some form of life existed on the planet.
Other Obstacles That Factor In When Roving On Other Planets
There is an impact of temperature extremes and the dynamic range between darkness and light on sensitive equipment. Airless environments are also asteroid prone. Earth’s atmosphere provides viscous drag as objects pierce it. The energy density is sufficient to cause atmospheric molecules to dissociate and component atoms to become ionized on the way down to its surface. Lunar, asteroid, and other planetary surfaces have thinner or no atmosphere and are less protected. There’s also the problem of jarring that can occur as extra-terrestrial vehicles navigate rugged, uneven, and even treacherous surfaces.
The Camera Image Quality In Airless Environments
The ability to capture images in light extremes presents another issue. Anyone who has taken a photo when the light was too bright or too dark, will understand the challenge these types of images present. The solution is a narrow band filter on the Osela series laser that doesn’t pick up light frequencies outside of the laser’s wavelength.
VisionSystemsDesign reports the K-REX2 camera system developer is AlliedVision, a company out of Stratroda, Germany. The system, built around the 1388 x 1038 Sony ICX267 image sensor, can reach camera speeds of 18 frames per second (fps) and is a Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology.
Light Source In Total Darkness
NASA uses an industrial laser to emit uniform, evenly-spaced dots that blanket the terrain and allow the camera to register. These dots out-illuminate other light sources and give the rover detection system a read on the surface conditions in front of the vehicle.
NASA’s Hazard Detection System
The image stream from the camera showing the laser dots feeds into a software program that accesses an OpenCV library. The system determines potential obstacles by dot’s position along a horizontal line, leveraging any shifting of position to read changes to the surface using a detection algorithm.
Teams are testing the K-REX2 at a two-acre outdoor planetary terrain facility to simulate both day and night conditions to gauge image quality and safely navigate past boulders.
Rocks and surface images recorded in day and night testing scenarios for the K-REX2. Courtesy vision-systems.com.
Concluding Thoughts On Ethernet In Space
Low-cost delivery of power and data over a single cable–whether Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6A, or even fiber optic (most likely the choice in this implementation due to temperature extremes)–saves money and time.
Despise not small beginnings.
Power over Ethernet makes sense. What started as a cost-effective technology to repurpose telecommunications cabling in commercial properties is soon to reach Mars. Not bad for something dreamed up by a few budget-conscious people looking to keep more of their hard-earned money.
Learn about Versa Technology’s PoE networking solutions.
The COVID pandemic lockdown had a substantial impact on the Ethernet market in the first quarter of 2020. Because people weren’t in the workplace, things like switch replacements were put on hold. It wasn’t the only factor, though, as things had already begun to slow somewhat toward the end of 2019. One very probable reason for the slow down is the transition to 100Gb Ethernet. According to the same International Data Corporation (IDC) press release (linked to above), shipments for the 100Gb switch rose 52.1 percent year-over-year to $5.5 billion. 100G revenues grew 9.9 percent year-over-year in 1Q20 to $1.28 billion, making up 20.8 percent of the market’s revenue.
Lighting, security, and host of other technologies are moving into this new Ethernet level, and the networking solutions needed to support them means that higher-grade switches are not far behind.
The 100G Ethernet Ecosystem
Every year the Ethernet Alliance publishes a State of the Ethernet infographic. This blog is going to take a look at one of the highlighted advances—fatter pipes. Because Powered Devices (PD) have become more sophisticated, more data is needed to run. Though these solutions are low power, they also need more power delivered over the same cable.
The 2020 State of the Ethernet is calling for “fatter pipes.” More data needs to get to the end-user. This blog will tie some of these advances in Ethernet technology to the places you will find them.
State of the Ethernet 2020: Image courtesy of the Ethernet Alliance.
Ethernet 2020 | Rural Road Becomes Super Highway
As IoT continues to become a functioning reality, what we don’t see is the infrastructure supporting it. To keep up as a delivery system, Ethernet has had to find ways to bring more data along existing lanes. A lane is a single, dedicated twisted pair within a Cat5e, Cat6 or Cat6A Ethernet cable. Earlier versions of IEEE 802.3 were one-way.
In contrast, 1000BASE-T (100Gb) and subsequent iterations [2.5/5/10/25/40 and beyond] use four lanes bidirectionally. Each lane carries a share of the total data rate.
Image courtesy Ethernet Alliance.
More Lanes Deliver Larger Amounts of Data
More data needs to travel simultaneously. Ethernet developers take advantage of a process called signal modulation in a form called Pulse-Amplitude Modulation (PAM).
Amplitude is the maximum extent of a vibration or oscillation, measured from the position of equilibrium. Modulation seeks to control the amplitude so as to be appropriate to the size of the data load. PAM is an analog signal pulse modulation scheme, where carrier pulses vary according to the sample value of the message signal.
An encoded message transmits in the amplitude of signal pulses. In other words, PAM describes data transmission by varying power levels in a regular timed sequence of electrical or electromagnetic pulses.
Why is this important?
Because more data can flow seamlessly using only enough power needed for that amount of data, the process becomes more efficient.
Bits Versus Bauds
In Ethernet, data and power are transmitted over one cable. Carrier signals divide into intervals. The way this works is that data divides into bits consisting of 1s and 0s. In data transmission, the bit rate is the number of bits sent per second (bps) per one pulse per band. Bps is the measure of how many bits transmit in that pulse over the same band.
In contrast to bit, a baud is a signal oscillation. Baud rate is the number of signal units (electrical oscillations) per second. The higher the baud rate, the more the number of bps transfer.
Why is this important?
Because things like Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and more, are all data hogs. The more Ethernet can power and transmit data to these technologies, the more cost-effective they will run.
Ethernet 2020 | Speeds And Sampling Rates Are On The Rise
Higher data rates are being achieved through this use of higher sampling rates and taking advantage of different modulation techniques. That is why 100GBASE is driving sales in Ethernet switches, and 200GBASE and 400GBASE are close behind.
Let’s take a closer look at what these names mean.
100 Gigabit Ethernet
100GBASE is a protocol for receiving/transmitting rates of 100Gbps. The packet transfer rate is 148.88Mpps (Million Packets Per Second) of throughput for switches and routers.
Officially, the IEEE 802.3bm-2015 standard, which defines 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GbE) and also 40 Gigabit Ethernet (40 GbE) over fiber cables. The 40 Gbe is designed for use within the organization between servers and the Ethernet switch, while 100 GbE is geared to long-distance switch-to-switch transmission.
200/400 Gigabit Ethernet
200GBASE / 400GBASE or Terabit Ethernet is Ethernet transmission at one trillion bits per second (1 Tbps). Terabit Ethernet is still in the future, but the term refers to Ethernet above 100 Gbps. The IEEE 802.3bs task force defines 200 Gigabit (200GBASE) and 400 Gigabit Ethernet (400GBASE) as Terabit Ethernet. Carriers and large enterprises are working to reach 200Gb and 400Gb in 2020. How much the pandemic has slowed this implementation is anyone’s guess.
Once the end of the lockdowns occurs, the workplace will experience further the rise of these new advances in Ethernet delivery.
The Ethernet Alliance credits business and learning applications as key drivers behind hundreds of millions of Ethernet ports shipping per year. The local area network (LAN) and the repurposing of existing telecommunications copper networks gave birth to the development of Ethernet technology. They estimate over 70 billion meters of cable has been deployed over the last 15 years alone. Sustainability, both financial and environmental, have always been at the center of Ethernet development, and that core value continues today.
Other applications appear in the areas of automation, smart building controls, and industrial settings. Wherever harsh environments occur, Ethernet
The State of The Ethernet Going Forward
The uncertainty over Ethernet in this season hinges on a date when a more significant percentage of businesses are going to return to peak capacity. With another wave of COVID apparently on the horizon, timelines may be a little impractical, especially since many people are continuing to work remotely.
Happily, the longer view is much more certain. We stand on the cusp of a surge in new Ethernet capability. We are stepping into the 100GBASE category, and well on our way toward Terabit Ethernet (200GBASE and 400GBASE) and all that provides.
Learn more about Versa Technology Ethernet Switches.