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PoE Market Forecasts from the Dell’Oro Group

Did you miss the Ethernet Alliance’s Analyst Hour on Power over Ethernet? The Ethernet Alliance’s webinar discussed the outlook of the industry and future factors that will drive PoE growth. Keep reading to catch up on the latest market research conducted by the Dell’Oro Group for insight on the PoE industry.

Who is the Dell’Oro Group?

The Dell’Oro Group specializes in providing market research for the telecommunications, network and data center market segments to keep businesses informed about the industry.

What is driving the growth of the PoE industry?

IEEE has reported that PoE is “growing well beyond shipments of 100M ports per year” and the webinar noted that the figure will continue to increase with the growing adoption of 802.11ac Wireless Access Points (WAP) and the popularization of PoE lighting.

What role do Ethernet switches have in the PoE ecosystem?

IEEE analyst hour Alan Weck overviews the role that Ethernet switches have in the PoE ecosystem and notes that users are increasingly relying on WLAN (wireless local area network) as opposed to wired connections to connect to the internet. Alan Weck notes that Ethernet switching has evolved “from a role of user connectivity to one of infrastructure”. As the 802.11 Wi-Fi standards continue to improve, wireless connection performance will begin to rival the speeds of wired connections. This has become a dominant trend in mobile computing where users choose wireless connections over a wired connection. Faster WLANs will increase the demand for the adoption of faster wireless access point, and this, in turn, will increase the demand for faster Ethernet speeds beyond the current 1 GB rate.

What is the main factor influencing faster Ethernet speeds?

As users become increasingly mobile and rely on WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks) to access the Internet, the demand for faster wireless access points (WAPs) will continue to increase. 802.11ax, the pre-standard faster than the current 802.11ac standard, is expected to arrive in 2019. The new pre-standard promises to deliver up to 10 Gbps rates. The improvement of wireless access points will push towards the adoption of 2.5 GB and 5 GB in the future. Alan Weck discusses that one of the main factors hindering the adoption of these two relatively new Ethernet rates are cost. But WLANs will continue to grow and place faster bandwidth demands on the backhaul of networks. IEEE PoE Analyst Hour

How will IoT influence PoE Port Growth?

When it comes to PoE port growth, Dell’Oro found that in terms of the Internet of Things (IoT), PoE lighting is the only sector expected to substantially fuel PoE growth. PoE lighting allows users to deploy low-powered LED lights using Power over Ethernet. This simplifies the deployment of lighting installation and removes the need for professional electrical installers and expensive electrical permits. To read more about the benefits of PoE lighting, click here.

What can threaten the growth of PoE lighting?

One of the main advantages that can fuel PoE lighting is the lack of legal permits needed to deploy a network. But a high volume of PoE lighting deployments running at full output power can potentially make for a fire hazard. Even though the scenario represents an extreme example, the analysts discussed the possible effects of regulation and how that would discourage new adopters. The market penetration of PoE lighting can unintentionally encumber traditional Ethernet deployment once regulation enters the picture. Alan Wecker discussed that “Lighting and building infrastructure is highly regulated. Traditional Ethernet is ubiquitous and cannot be burdened with regulation. If everything in Ethernet gets regulated because of this use case, many other use cases will look for alternatives outside the Ethernet ecosystem.”

PoE is Awaiting the standardization of 802.3bt. How does the pending standard affect the Ethernet ecosystem?

Though regulation is highly unlikely with current PoE standards, PoE is awaiting the standardization of the 802.3bt standard. The new standard promises to deliver up to 100 watts per PoE port. Power Sourcing Equipment that supports these new ultra PoE power levels justifies the fledgling concern for possible future regulation demands for the wiring technology. PoE is currently a cost-effective alternative to installing new electrical circuitry. It allows network administrators to deploy PoE in locations without the expense of electrical conduit permits. Regulation would only hinder the growth of PoE port shipments and discourage prospective PoE lighting customers from adopting the Ethernet ecosystem.

Other PoE market forecasts:

Alan Weck mentioned a couple other market observations in relation to switches. The market for Fast Ethernet switches will continue to decline. In addition, the bulk of the market will consist of 1 Gigabit Ethernet units while the 40 GB market will continue to decrease. The following diagram also includes market projections for 25/50/100 GB Ethernet and 2.5/5/10 Gigabit Ethernet units IEEE PoE Analyst Hour

Will IP telephones or VoIP phones impact PoE port growth?

IP Desk phones, as noted by Alan Weck, drove PoE port growth before 2008. With the introduction of instant messaging platforms and social media, experts predicted a sharp decline in the Enterprise IP Telephony market share. However, Dell Oro’s findings report neither a growth nor decline in IP Telephony.

Do these market forecasts include automobile Ethernet?

Unfortunately, these market forecasts do not include automobile Ethernet. Automobile Ethernet will be considered an entire breed of its own. IEEE recently introduced 802.3bw standard, which “specifies 100BASE-T- 100Mbps over a single twisted pair for automobile applications”. Click here to find out more about 802.3bw.

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Google Fiber

Google Fiber Brings Low-Cost Internet to Kansas City

Google Fiber just announced that it will give low-income families in Kansas City, the opportunity to receive symmetrical 25 Mbps broadband services for $15/month. 25 Mbps just happens to meet FCC’s recently raised minimum broadband threshold. Internet service offerings below the 25 Mbps rate do not qualify as broadband. Kansas City residents also have the option of receiving 100 Mbps service packages for $50/month. Google Fiber also offers a 1Gbps service option and even a television service package. Google Fiber is a Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) service currently deployed in Kansas City, as well as other cities including Provo, Utah and Austin, Texas. The announcement as noted by Fierce Telecom, comes shortly after Google Fiber announced that it will no longer be providing free 5 Mbps services. The service will become available on May 19 and the best part about it for customers is that Google does not require them to sign up for contracts. Customers who do cancel their service are held responsible for returning their equipment no later than 21 days or Google will charge them for replacement fees. Prospective customers in the area can input their address on Google’s Website to verify if they qualify for Google Fiber services.how-to-get-fiber

Why does Kansas City get to have Google Fiber?

Google opened its applications for Google Fiber in 2010 and collected a pool of nearly 1,100 interested communities. Kansas City boasts a population of approximately 2,428,362 and the lucky city got chosen to receive the enviable fiber service packages. Milo Media, Google’s Vice President of Access Services comments that Kansas City was chosen due to the company’s perceived ability to be able to build “quickly and efficiently”. Fiber deployment is an intrusive medium to deploy in communities, and a large part of the reason that Kansas City was chosen was due to the city’s promise to Google that it would stay out of the way. Forbes comments that “the city officials promised to get out of the media giant’s way. They didn’t dangle tax breaks, but they did deliver access to public rights of way, expedite the permitting process, offer space in city facilities and provide assistance with marketing and public relations.” The city’s agreement to not interfere with Google’s Fiber deployment played a key role. Click here to learn more about how Google Fiber seems to be choosing the cities for their Google Fiber rollout. Receive a Complementary Consultation   Google Fiber as an access provider seems like a dream to consumers with its killer broadband speeds at affordable rates. Google Fiber service packages make it difficult for local telecom providers to offer competitive service packages. But it’s also stimulating Fiber cable deployment. CNN notes that when Google Fiber launched its service available for the residents of Austin Texas, AT&T announced its intention to build a gigabit network in the city shortly after. When it comes to power, there’s no company that comes close to the amount of power it has on its users with such a monopoly on their personal data. But Google’s innovation seems to be ethically grounded with its many seemingly unrelated but innovative side projects such as the self-driving car and Google Loon—a project that grants Internet access to remote regions of the world. But Elon Musk is another ethical company that’s exploring new ways to bring affordable internet to the masses using microsatellites. Click here to learn more about how Elon Musk plans to bring “Unfettered internet access for the masses” at a very low cost”. Check Out Our Networking Gear   
Powered Fiber Cable Systems

Exploring Powered Fiber Cable Systems (PFCS)— Is it time for PoE to Divorce Power and Data?

Power over Ethernet (PoE) is known for its simultaneous transmission of power and data using twisted pair copper, but will the search for faster speed rates influence the separation of data and power? New Powered Fiber Cable System (PFCS) solutions introduce a new breed of PoE extension. The solution utilizes a powered fiber cable that insulates fiber and copper separately and assigns copper with one sole purpose—to transmit power.

Understanding PoE's 100 Meter Limitation

Each new 802.3 PoE standard tends to introduce higher power outputs. IEEE’s initial 802.3af PoE standard introduced compliance for 15 watts of power (12.95 with power dissipation). The standard was followed by 802.3at, also known as PoE+, and introduced compliance for 30 watts of power (25.4 watts of power). IEEE is currently studying 802.3bt, also known as PoE ++, a new standard that aims to provide up to 80 watts of power by using all four twisted copper pairs to transmit data and power. But though new standards seem to be improving upon output power, each new standard fails to improve the maximum supported distance of 100 meters—the standard Ethernet limitation. Receive a Complementary Consultation   Copper has the ability to transmit power to longer distances; however, the range of PoE is limited by copper’s inability to transmit data to ranges that exceed 100 meters. Optical fiber can transmit up to 100 Terabits per seconds.  Copper cables are able to transmit gigabit speeds and up to 10 Gbps with newer networking cables such as Cat6 and Cat7.  For the time being, 10 Gbps transfer speeds are sufficient for even the most data-hungry Internet users. Nonetheless, optical fiber easily surpasses 100 meter distances. Fiber cable systems with new powered fiber cables can achieve up to 3,000 meters.

Approximating Power over Fiber

Commscope has designed a new powered fiber cable that insulates the optical fiber cable and copper wire within their own separate jackets. The new design deviates from traditional hybrid optical fiber cables that insulate both types of mediums within the same jacket. Network installers can easily peel the cables apart for quick access. The new cabling requires no other special tools besides a wire stripper. These new types of powered fiber cables are quite flexible in comparison to traditional hybrid fiber cables. powered fiber cable system Though the solution can’t exactly be described as Power over Fiber, the optical fiber and copper cabling run alongside each other and leverages the same benefit that PoE provides—the ability to deploy powered devices at any location without having to rely on local power supplies. The ability to install devices without relying on local power supplies, along with its simple ‘plug-and-play’ installation, makes PoE an essential component of networking topologies. But PoE faces a standard 100 meter limitation which forces network administrators to rely on additional equipment such as PoE extenders and media converters to extend network connections beyond Ethernet’s standard 100 meter limitation. This new breed of PoE extenders will eliminate the need for additional extender kits and simplify network connections.

Leveraging the Power of Copper and Fiber—Separately

Electrical Engineer Bill Schweber observes that the effectiveness of powered fiber systems stems from separating optical fiber and copper. He remarks that the simultaneous transmission of power and data in standard networking cables “require significant "negotiation" and confirmation between the source and load, between intervening ICs and, in order to assure that power is available and acceptable by a peripheral, that there are no conflicts in hardware or software.” Powered fiber cable systems eliminate power negotiations and reserves optical fiber for data transmission and copper wiring for power transmission. The electrical engineer comments that “PFCS [Powered Fiber Cable Systems] seems to me to be a clever scheme, since it leverages the advantages of each medium (optical+copper, PoE) without either one getting in the way of the other one, and the associated complexity.” Schweber concludes “that by using the long run of copper just for power and not for data, the technical difficulties will be reduced while the performance will be more consistent and easier to manage”. Separating data and power allows copper to deliver power output ranges that exceed the current 802.3at standard of 30 watts. And optical fiber speeds will be able to deliver transmission speeds that surpass 10Gbps to future powered devices.

Additional Benefits of Powered Fiber Cable Systems

powered-fiber-cable-systems-use-cases-compressor According to Aruba Networks, Powered Fiber Cable Systems “Greatly speed up planning by eliminating DC electrical calculations for voltage/power drop over varying distances”. These devices can support up to 32 devices from a centrally located USPs. Powered Fiber Cable Systems essentially operate similar to long extension cords. It’s highly unlikely that IEEE will divorce Power from Data when it comes to PoE. PoE is ideal for home and enterprise networks, even with a 100 meter Ethernet limitation. And in the cases where powered devices need to be installed beyond 100 meters, there are a myriad of PoE extender options such as fiber media extenders, UTP Ethernet Extenders, and coaxial cable extenders for example, that effectively bypass the limited distance and preserve speed. Click here to view our interactive infographic explaining the top methods used to extend Ethernet. Related Posts:

Our Top Ten Most Frequently Asked Questions About VDSL

We’ve compiled a list of the most commonly asked questions about VDSL & VDSL2. If you’re interested in learning more about ADSL and ADSL2+, visit our ADSLs/2+ FAQ here.

1. What is VDSL/VDSL2?

VDSL, or Very-High-Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber line, allows Internet Service Providers to provide fast connection speeds via legacy copper lines. VDSL and VDSL2 can provide faster broadband performance when compared to ADSL/2+ up to approximately 1.5km distances. After 1.5 km distances, VDSL2 exhibits performance rates comparable to ADSL2+.

2. How fast is VDSL in comparison to VDSL2?

VDSL speeds vary depending on copper loop lengths and other factors in a networking environment. Pair-bonding is another factor that influences VDSL speeds. VDSL can support downstream and upstream rates of 100 Mbps. VDSL2 on the other hand, can reach theoretic downstream and upstream data rates of up to 200 Mbps at its source. VDSL2 also supports a wider frequency range of 30 MHz in comparison to VDSL’s 12 Mhz frequency range. Both VDSL generations quickly deteriorate after certain distances. At 1 km, both VDSL versions begin to exhibit similar speeds. At approximately 1.6 km, VDSL performance becomes comparable to ADSL2+. VDSL vs VDSL2 Comparison Chart

3. What is the farthest distance VDSL2 can reach?

The maximum range for VDSL2 is approximately 1,200 meters. After approximately 1600 meters, VDSL2’s performance quickly deteriorates yielding speeds comparable to ADSL2+.

4. How does VDSL2 achieve higher data rates than VDSL and ADSL2/2+?

Copper loop lines are susceptible to signal attenuation and copper loop lengths which limit fast transmission speeds. To achieve data rates over 100 Mbps, VDSL2 relies on port-bonding and vectoring.

5. What is pair-bonding?

VDSL2 supports the capability of bonding two or more twisted copper pairs to increase banding. But pair-bonding also functions to extend the reach of a copper network. Two DSL Line circuits that connect to a customer’s modem can be bonded. Or as explained by Ospmag, pair-bonding requires 2 VDSL2 lines which “can be combined into a “virtual “gig pipe” that allows operators to double the bitrate for existing subscribers.” Pair-bonding can be compared to adding more lanes to a freeway so that it can support more traffic. This enables Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to offer different data rate packages to subscribers.

6. What is VDSL2 Vectoring?

VDSL2 uses vectoring to remove crosstalk and interference reduces actual performance. VDSL2 measures crosstalk from all lines in a network and applies anti-phase signals to cancel out noise. VDSL2 vectoring works in similar fashion to noise-cancelling headphones. Crosstalk allows VDSL2 speeds to achieve longer distances than VDSL.  Assia Inc.  specifies that “Vectored VDSL is most suitable for deployment from a node, and is the most economical in terms of required capital expenditure.”

7. What is the purpose of the different VDSL2 profiles?

VDSL2 supports 8 distinct “profiles” with varying maximum downstream and upstream throughput as well as different bandwidth frequencies and transceiver power. Different profiles are optimal for different deployment scenarios. For example, profiles 8a-8b and 12a-12b are ideal for Fiber to the Node (FTTN) deployments. Profiles 17a can be used for Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTCAB), and Fiber to the Building (FTTB) can utilize profile 30a.
Different VDSL Profiles

Img Src: http://www.globaltelecomsbusiness.com/pdf/ZTE%20VDSL2--A%20Feasible%20Solution%20for%20Last%20Mile-Nov.pdf

8. Do you recommend using 2 different VDSL2 profiles on distinct modems connected to a DSLAM?

Having a cable bundle consisting of 2 or more VDSL2 profiles will exhibit intermittent sync, port status errors and poor performance. The 30a profile will run on 30 Mhz while the 17a profile will run on 17Mhz. The 30a profile can "bleed" over to the 17a profile.  Many chipset manufactures such as Broadcom have stepped away from VDSL2 30a due to this very reason. Our recommendation is to force all subscriber interfaces to sync at 17a if you have modems that do not support 30a. Users shouldn't have an issue if all ports are synced on the same VDSL2 profile.

9. Are VDSL2/2+ units compatible with previous versions of VDSL2?

VDSL2 units are backwards compatible with VDSL Units. When a VDSL2 unit is connected to a compatible VDSL unit, VDSL2 bandwidth will revert to VDSL’s maximum supported 12Mhz frequency range.

10. Are there faster DSL technologies than VDSL2?

Yes! G.Fast is a standard still in development that has shown the ability to transmit gigabit speeds using legacy copper lines in laboratory settings. Openreach, the dominant telecom provider in the UK, is spearheading the new technology, deploying trial runs to determine if the new technology is commercially viable. However, G.Fast, like VDSL, is only effective in deployments where customer premises reside near cabinets. To learn more about G.Fast, click here.
 

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FCC’s New 25 Mbps Broadband Definition Receives ISP Backlash

Last year, FCC Chairman Tom Wheeler redefined broadband, raising the qualifying speeds from 4 Mbps DS/ 1 Mbps US to 25 Mbps DS/ 3Mbps US. This new standard toppled the once promising statistic that upheld that “99% percent of Americans had access to broadband speeds”. The FCC’s new definition spawned a new statistic that revealed that “two-thirds of U.S. households, lack the choice of more than one ISP at speeds of 25 Mbps or greater”. These new figures expose the grave state of the internet in rural areas that have a low subscriber density—a market segment that telecoms choose to ignore due to a low return of investments.  FCC New 25 Gbps Threshold   Republican Senators Fred Upton and Greg Walden recently issued a letter to the FCC protesting that the FCC is overstepping their domain of authority. The letter protests that the FCC’s goals are too vague for telecoms to effectively address. The senators dispute that 25 Mbps appears like an arbitrary figure and challenges the FCC to justify the new minimum threshold—citing that Netflix and Amazon merely recommend 5 Mbps for their streaming services. Tech Dirt construes that the “senators don’t really care about technical specifics [and that] they’re just blindly echoing the broadband industry’s annoyance that the FCC is now actually highlighting the lack of broadband competition in the market.”

Why Telecom Monopolies Form In Rural Areas

Telecom companies are more likely to form regional monopolies in areas that have low subscriber densities. Many phone companies like Verizon, are attempting to shed their DSL lines and oftentimes sell their wireline liabilities to smaller telecom companies. Verizon recently sold its wireline properties in California, Texas, and Florida to Frontier Communications. But when service providers withdraw their DSL services altogether, local subscribers are left with no choice but to subscribe to their local cable carriers  and accept the Internet Service Packages (ISPs) that they’re offered. Telephone companies have also been accused of allowing their copper cables to deteriorate in an effort to justify replacing them with fiber. In response, the FCC’s Connect America Fund incentivizes Telecom companies to pursue less profitable market segments such as rural areas. These funds aim to “accelerate broadband build-out to the approximately 23 million Americans who lack access to infrastructure capable of providing 10/1 Mbps fixed broadband.” America’s high-speed broadband lags behind in countries such as South Korea, boasting average broadband connection speeds of 20.5 Mbps, and Sweden which averages connection speeds of 17.4 Mbps. Even though these areas are geographically smaller in comparison to the U.S., the annual Broadband Access Report reveals that a jaw-dropping 20% of Americans still don’t have access to broadband as defined by the FCC. Receive a Complementary Consultation   Is 25 Mbps Realistic? But ISPs cause for concern is also due to DSL’s inability to consistently yield 25 Mbps. DSL speeds vary upon several factors including distance, the quality of copper cables, the type of xDSL technology used, and unique noise environments. VDSL2 and ADSL2 connections are cost-effective solutions for ISPs, especially for rural areas that may only have a handful of subscribers. But it’s difficult for VDSL2 and ADSL2 lines to reliably achieve the new broadband rates. ADSL2 can yield speeds of 25 Mbps at its source but speeds begin to attenuate after the first kilometer. VDSL2 technology on the other hand, can yield speeds of up to 100 mbps at its source but exhibits the same performance as ADSL2+ after the first 2 kilometers. In order to properly fulfill the new standards, it would entail ISPs to deploy fiber in these areas. It’s not difficult to see why ISPs are fighting back. It would not make economical sense to deploy fiber in areas that only have a handful of subscribers.

But Why Associate the Internet with Egalitarianism?

In an effort to improve the state of the Internet, the Connect America Fund aims to bring reform that “will not only drive economic growth in rural America, but will expand the online marketplace nationwide, creating jobs and businesses opportunities across the country”. The Internet has become a treasure trove of educational content and economic opportunities and gubernatorial action is necessary to close the connectivity gap between urban and rural areas.

Former Hewlett Packard CEO and former presidential candidate Carly Fiorina has been known to voice her belief that: “technology is the great leveler. Technology permits anybody to play. And in some ways, I think technology- is not only a great tool for democratization, but it’s a great tool for eliminating prejudice and advancing meritocracies.”

The FCC itself has experienced the ramifications of political action taken in cyberspace firsthand. When John Oliver’s Last Week Tonight brought to light the battle for net neutrality to viewers, he beseeched them to take to the FCC’s forums to protest the new regulations that would allow ISPs to reserve faster Internet lanes to higher-paying customers. 22,000 obedient supporters flocked to the forums and even crashed the FCC’s servers with to the high volume of visitors. The ‘Internet Slowdown Day’ virtual protest, was another pivotal event that showcased the power of a virtual protest.

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Read “What Net Neutrality Really Taught Us about Political Power and Technology” to learn more about the political efficacy of virtual protests.   Related Posts:

-How Lack of Internet Service Providers Hinders Public Education

-Net Neutrality Silent Protest “Slows Down the Internet”

-What Net Neutrality Really Taught Us About Political Power and Technology

PoE Compatibility vs Compliant

Compatible vs Compliant PoE Devices—What is the difference?

Compliant PoE devices and compatible PoE devices do not hold up to the same 802.3af/at standard. Misunderstanding the difference between compliant and compatible devices can lead to interoperable connections. Powered Devices labeled as “compliant” fulfill IEEE’s strict requirements of supporting both Mode A and Mode B power modes. 802.3af/at compatible Powered Devices on the other hand, usually only have the ability to provide power using Mode B. Power pin outs for compatible powered devices are vendor-specific. While 802.3af/at compatible powered devices can operate with compliant power sourcing equipment, there is no guarantee. If you find yourself in the market for an 802.3af/at compatible devices, ensure to check the product’s data sheet or contact your vendor to ensure that your prospective device will be compatible with your existing Power Sourcing Equipment. Please make a note that compliant Power Sourcing Equipment can either support Mode A or Mode B, but IEEE doesn’t require compliant devices to support both power modes. Power Sourcing Equipment can essentially support one mode and still be considered compliant.   PoE-Infographic

Mode A vs. Mode B

Alternative A, also known as Mode A, will use the data pairs of an Ethernet link to deliver power. Data Pairs include pins 1,2 and 3,6.  PSEs using Mode A will supply a positive voltage to pins 1 and 2. Alternative B, also known as Mode B, will use the spare pairs to deliver power. Spare Pairs include pins 4,5 and 7,8.  Please refer to our infographic to see a visual representation of Mode A and Mode B.

Endspan PSEs vs. Midspan PSEs

An endspan PSE will directly connect and supply PoE power to a PD such as a PoE switch. Midpoint PSE’s will oftentimes serve as the intermediary devices between a non-PoE capable PSE with a PoE-capable powered device. Examples of Midspan PoE’s include power injectors or power hubs. Endspan PSE’s provide power on the data pairs, also known as Mode A. Midspan PSEs provide power using the spare pairs, also known as Mode B. Power Sourcing Equipment vs. Powered Devices Powered Devices (PD) refer to the group of networking units such as IP cameras, VoIP phones, or WAPs that rely on Power Sourcing Equipment to operate. Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) such as switches, hubs, and injectors, provides power to Powered Devices.

What is PoE?

Power over Ethernet simplifies the deployment of networking devices allowing for system integrators or network administrators to install powered devices at any location. PoE simultaneously transmits data and power using a standard Ethernet cable and eliminates the expense of installing additional expensive circuitry. PoE Benefits include:
  • Power and data using one cable
  • Simplified deployment
  • Connectivity at nearly any location
  • Eliminates the expense of additional circuitry

network cables Powered Devices Classification

PDs can be categorized into “classes” depending on a unit’s power requirements. Classification ensures that powered devices receive the appropriate level of power. This prevents a PD from drawing more power than it needs, allowing for the allocation of unused power to other PDs. Devices with class assignments that require low power draw will not generate as much heat and will utilize smaller cooling systems. Devices that do not have a specific class assignment will default to Class 0 (.44-12.95 watts). A PSE will classify a PD by transmitting power to the connected PD using the positive pairs, and measuring the amount power loss on the negative pair.

IEEE 802.3af

IEEE’s 802.3af standard, finalized in 2003, specifies up to 15.4 W of DC Power (minimum 44V DC and 350mA) to each device. Powered devices receive only 12.95 W of power due to power dissipation.

IEEE 802.3at

IEEE’s 802.3af standard also known as PoE+ or PoE plus, finalized in 2009, specifies 30 watts of DC power. Powered devices receive only 25.5 Watts due to power dissipation.

IEEE 802.3BT

IEEE’s 802.3BT is a pre-standard and is also known as ultra PoE. Click here to learn how PoE will The high power PoE standard will simultaneously transmit data and power using all data pairs. It is expected that the standard will be able to deliver between 60-100 watts of power. The final standard is expected to receive ratification in 2017. 

Want to learn more about PoE? Click here to become a PoE expert in just 5 minutes.

How to Extend Your Ethernet

Top 5 Ways to Extend Ethernet (with Infographic)

RJ45 Ethernet connections are one of the most common forms of cabling found in local LAN networks. Ethernet is defined by IEEE’s 802.3 standard and can be classified in different categories including Cat5 (now obsolete), CAT5e, CAT6, and CAT6a. The two most common types of Ethernet speeds are known as Fast Ethernet, which support 10/100 Mbps, and Gigabit Ethernet, which supports 10/100/1000 Mbps. 10G Ethernet is traditionally used for backhaul and core networks such as corporate backbones, data centers, and server farms. Ethernet has replaced ATM, FDDI, and Token Ring LAN technologies and has become the default plumbing pipe of the Internet. Robert Metcalfe co-invented Ethernet while working for Xerox Parc when he was tasked (with the job) to connect a cluster of computers to a laser printer in 1973. Robert Metcalfe later founded his own computer networking company, 3COM, and made considerable efforts to make Ethernet an industry standard. He shared his hilarious life lessons in was a guest in one of Reddit’s AMA (short for ask me anything) session and shared his life lessons here Ethernet however, comes with a standard 100-meter limitation. The medium loses signal integrity beyond 100 meters. The following delineates the 5 common and not-so-common methods used to bypass the standard Ethernet limitation.

1. Fiber Media Converters

Since fiber supports longer distances than copper, fiber media converters, traditionally deployed in pairs, extend Ethernet links by converting Ethernet cable runs from copper to fiber, and reverting a fiber connection to copper.  Media converters can also be paired with switches that support fiber. Fiber refracts light to transmit data allowing for greater signal integrity in comparison to twisted pair copper. Different fiber types include SC, LC, FC, ST, and MU, among many others. Fiber consists of a core, the internal area where light signals are transmitted, and cladding, the sheathing which keeps the light from escaping. Single-mode fiber cables have a smaller core, about 8 micrometers, in comparison to multimode fiber, about 50 micrometers. The smaller core in single mode fiber allows for the propagation of light through a single pathway, allowing it to achieve faster speeds using a direct pathway in comparison to Multimode Fiber. Multimode Fiber’s larger core disperses light signals via multiple spatial pathways and this slows down transmission speeds. Nonetheless, multimode fiber offers fast transmission speeds and is commonly deployed in enterprises and small businesses due to their competitive price in comparison to single mode fiber. Telephone companies and cable companies are more likely to deploy single mode fiber for longer range applications. Multimode fiber can extend Ethernet links an additional 500 meters while single-mode fiber can support up to 60 kilometers.
fastest ethernet extender

VX-VEB160G4 (V2) Ethernet Extender Kit

Fiber’s immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), surges, spikes, and ground loops makes it ideal for industrial environments where these types of conditions are typical. Media converters come in a variety of different form factors and are designed to fulfill a diverse range of commercial and industrial applications. Micro Media Converters for example, offer a smaller footprint than wall-mounted fiber converters or din rail applications. The configuration of media converters can vary in difficulty levels. Standard media converters offer a simple plug and play installation in contrast to managed media converters. Industrial media converters can withstand extreme temperature ranges to provide reliable operation in harsh environments.
micro media converter

VX-200M-1212-2 Industrial Micro 10/100Base-TX to 100Base-FX Ethernet Media Converter

2. UTP Ethernet Extenders

Network administrators and system integrators can also extend Ethernet using Ethernet Extender units. Networking units such as the LRP-101-UKit make it possible to extend an Ethernet links using UTP cable or 1-pair cable such as telephone cable.  When paired with PoE technology, these units make it simple to deploy IP surveillance cameras for example, in locations that lack electrical circuitry. 4-pair UTP cabling can yield an additional 500 meters to Ethernet links and up to 300 meters using telephone cables. Other units such as the VX-VEB160G4 can extend Ethernet links up to 2.5 kilometers.
Best extender

GT-802 10/100/1000Base-T to 1000SX Gigabit Media Converter (MM, SC, 550m)

UTP Ethernet Extender convert Ethernet to DSL and revert signals back to Ethernet. Following similar deployment schemes as fiber media converters, these units can be deployed in pairs. Alternatively, single units can operate with compatible switches.

3. Coaxial Cable Extenders

Coaxial Extenders can extend Ethernet connections up to 1,000 meters using legacy coaxial cabling and can provide high-quality video transmission. Units such as the LRP-101-C-KIT make it simple to upgrade from analog to IP cameras using the existing coaxial wiring infrastructure of a network. Coaxial Extenders can be a highly scalable solution when paired with coaxial switches such as the LRP-822Cs . The unit can house up to 8 networking devices using coaxial links.
best EThernet extender

LRP-101C-KIT 1-Port Long Reach PoE over coax Extender Kit (LRP-101CH + LRP-101CE)

It’s not uncommon to find twisted pair copper cables and coaxial cables included in the infrastructure of a building. UTP and coaxial cable Ethernet extenders are cost-effective options that use existing copper lines and eliminate the need to rewire a network.

4. Wireless Ethernet extension (Radio Wireless Extension)

Wireless Ethernet Extension can be accomplished using two wireless access points (WAPs) to form a wireless bridge. This type of deployment requires two WAPs —one configured as an SDS AP (source) and the second to be configured as SDS Client (destination) modes. Wireless Ethernet extenders conveniently offer Ethernet extension without the need to accommodate unsightly wires. Unfortunately, wireless Ethernet extenders are susceptible to the interference such as infrastructures and weather conditions. Wireless Ethernet extension requires networks to be within a line of sight, unobstructed by large infrastructures. Wireless Ethernet extension can span several miles long and is ideal for enterprise and industrial environments.
802.11ac WAP

VX-AP1AC Outdoor 802.11ac Wireless LAN High Power Access Point with PoE

5. Cellular Extension (Cellular Data Networking)

Cellular wireless routers make it possible to provide wireless Ethernet extension in a similar fashion to wireless bridges. But unlike wireless bridges, cellular extension relies on a network of cell towers to transmit signals. Using cellular routers, system integrators can extend Ethernet signals to virtually any location that receives a cell phone signal. Cellular extension bypasses the need for networks to be within line of sight, a limitation found in wireless bridges. As explained by B&B Electronics, solar cellular routers can easily be deployed in locations that reside beyond the edge of the power grid to extend Ethernet where electrical circuitry is absent. Cellular routers can support applications such as networking equipment, ATM machines, water meters, and industrial control systems.

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PoE Lighting

Largest PoE Lighting Installation Ushers Age of Innovation at Watt Family Center

Royal Phillips has announced its first large-scale lighting deployment powered by Power over Ethernet (PoE) at Clemson University. The University’s Watt Family Innovation Center now boasts state-of-the-art lighting that combines the energy efficiency of LED lighting with the simplicity of PoE cabling. PoE Lighting is a cutting edge technology that provides a branding statement of innovation for the center which was built to encourage student-faculty collaboration. The 70,000 square building boasts PoE-based indoor LED lighting that can be regulated using the web-based Phillips Envision Manager. The control system features convenient remote control using a software console that can be accessed on different computers, smartphones, or tablets. Receive a Complementary Consultation  

PoE-Based LED Media Facade

The Watt Family Innovation Center also pioneers the “largest media façade installation in the United States”. The LED display features Phillips very own high-intensity iColor Flex LMX Gen2 LED lights. The large LED strands of light create string-like curtain panels that can display messages and provides a new take on traditional digital marquees and billboards.

Real-Time Occupancy Monitoring

PoE Lighting Phillips Clemson

img src: http://www.clemson.edu/centers-institutes/watt/

Another additional feature of the smart lighting system is that the PoE system’s occupancy sensors can automatically power lights on or off. The occupancy sensors also gather data to provide historical and real-time usage trends.

How does PoE lighting work?

Power over Ethernet (PoE) originally emerged to power Voice-over IP (VoIP) solutions but has since been adapted to power applications beyond computer networking, such as LED lighting. Power over Ethernet (PoE) has the ability to deliver powe r and data via a single cable and eliminates the need for additional electrical circuitry. Cat-5 cabling is comprised of 4-twisted pairs. As Mike Hornung elucidates in Energy Manager Today, if LED lights require low data speeds, up to 3 pairs can be used to provide power, reserving the remaining pair for data.  Even though the off-switching of voltages in differentiated signals can transmit data, it’s also possible to shift the voltages (from 10V to 0V as opposed to -5V to 5V for example) and be left with a positive voltage that can be extracted from the adjacent end of a wire. PoE traditionally supports low-powered devices, but 802.3 Ethernet standards are evolving to adopt higher power. For example, the 802.3at standards can supply up to 25.5 Watts of power and it is speculated that the ultra-PoE pre-standard will be able to supply 100 Watts of power.

PoE for IoT

With the ability to support power and data, PoE removes the cost of hiring expensive electricians making it possible for IT personnel to easily manage the infrastructure. The large-scale installation is a testament to the possible future of Power over Ethernet. The cabling’s flexible and versatile deployment options will help usher in the much-anticipated adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT). With the ability to deliver power and data, PoE can easily provide connectivity to a large portion of the IoT market— particularly because a large portion of the IoT market will be comprised of sensors that have low-power requirements.

Simple User-Interface

Clemson University’s PoE-based LED installation uses the Phillips Envision Manager, a web-based software configuration center, to allow system integrators to control and monitor the LED lights within a centralized control center. Another aspect of the interface is it also integrates other site services such as HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning). User-friendly interfaces such as these will curb learning time of new users and will contribute to the mass adoption of IoT components in both the consumer and industrial sector.
PoE Lighting

img src: http://www.colorkinetics.com/ls/rgb/flexlmx/

Energy-Efficient PoE Lighting

So how energy efficient is the Royal Phillips installation? According to their press release, “this new lighting solution will deliver up to 70 percent in energy savings compared to similar buildings using conventional lighting.” In fact, “Phillips and Cisco have both evidenced a 50% reduction in installation costs for Ethernet-based connected lighting systems compared with conventional AC-powered systems.” The high-profile installation leads us to questions new devices can adopt PoE and if telecommunications can be solution to energy management. Think PoE lighting is cool? Check out how Li-Fi lighting can transmit Wi-Fi signals!
Industrial Internet of Things Infographic

What is the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)?

Gartner predicts that 20.8 billion things will be connected to the internet by 2020. The Internet of Things (IoT) describes the new generation of smart devices that connect to the internet and offer users the ability to remotely control and monitor their devices. Consumers typically associate the Internet of Things with sexy consumer products such as wearables and smart home automation devices. But did you know that “most Iot devices are not in your home or phone”? [1] In fact, a sizeable portion of IoT devices are deployed in factories, businesses, and healthcare.
IIOT-infographicThis sector of the IoT industry is known as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and it includes industries such as manufacturing, healthcare, transportation, oil and gas, and even agriculture.  Also dubbed as the internet of unsexy things by Stephen Bryant, the bulk impact of the Industrial internet of things will stem from inexpensive sensors- the data collecting barnacles that feed off the processes of physical machines. Sensors are becoming increasingly cheaper to the extent that connectivity will become a default feature in even the most basic options.

IIoT Will Spawn Hybrid Business Models

This hyper-awareness of machine processes will allow business to increase their operational efficiency by reducing downtime and increasing productivity levels. However, industrial businesses will also have access to a surplus of information allowing them to collect insights that may also help them develop new products and services.

Michelin Group is one such example. Their pre-digital business model consisted of offering one sole product: tires. But when the company added sensors to their tires, they were consequently able to offer a new software-based service. Their new software takes input from the sensors in their tires to help train truck fleet drivers to drive more efficiently and reduce fuel consumption. Michelin is an example of a product-based company that was able to spawn a new information-based service.

The impact of the IoT world will occur behind the scenes of the Industrial Internet of Things and will largely remain invisible to consumers. These IIoT devices will operate silently in infrastructures and collect valuable data. This data will be translated by experts or software to generate insights and increase efficiency and revenue. And for the first time in history, industrial industries will have an opportunity to create hybrid business models between their physical products and digital services that can emerge from the new influx of data that they collect. In the same way that the Information Age has pressured professionals to become knowledge workers, IIoT will challenge industrial industries to enter the digital economy and collaborate with unlikely partners.

But a greater capacity for predictive and preventative data can lead to what experts are calling an “outcome economy”. In an outcome economy, consumers will purchase results as opposed to Seth Godin's conceptualization of the placebo generated by marketing.

IIOT vs. M2M

The Industrial Internet of Things can be seen as an evolutionary step up from Machine-to-Machine (M2M) technology typically designed for closed-ended, point-to-point connections. The flaw with M2M technology, as explained by Automation World, is that even though remote management is possible, “Rarely... [is] the data integrated with enterprise applications.” M2M applications typically rely on hardware modules embedded in a machine whereas IoT devices depend on low-powered and passive sensors that communicate using standards-based IP networks. IoT devices also offer a more scalable solution by utilizing the cloud. M2M can be seen as the equivalent of running a CD-Rom while IIoT can be compared to connecting to the Internet.

PoE-The Plumbing of IIoT

The IIoT will rely heavily on the practicality of Power over Ethernet (PoE). With data and power delivered via a single Ethernet cable, PoE simplifies the deployment of networking equipment in locations without electrical circuitry. Higher-powered 802.3at devices can supply a maximum of 25.5 watts of power and can support a variety of networking and non-networking applications such as PoE lighting. Using PoE as the electrical interface in these types of environments is a practical solution. Machine Design  asserts that “Ethernet has 10 to 100 times higher data throughput rates than with fieldbuses, is a widespread technology, cost-comparable to analog interfaces, based on industry standards, and is flexible and compatible with current automation systems.” The following will describe the type of equipment used in industrial environments.

Industrial POE Switches

The IIoT industry will rely on Gigabit and Fast Ethernet Switches with PoE capabilities and different uplink options for to fit the different needs of a variety of networking environments. The IGS-803SM-8PHE24 (Extended Model) is a managed industrial grade Gigabit PoE (Power over Ethernet) switch with 8 Gigabit PoE interfaces and 3 SFP Gigabit/Fast Ethernet ports that help network administrators benefit from the power of PoE and fiber. It’s not uncommon for switches such as these to include STP/RSTP/MSTP/ ITU-T G.8032 Ring and multiple U-Ring features. Devices such as the IGS-803SM-8PHE24 also boast energy-efficiency with advanced PoE management functions. These units are designed to withstand harsh electrical demands and temperatures to ensure reliable operation in industrial networking environments. The IGS-803SM-8PHE24 is a wide operating temperature range model (-40 to 75°C) and is an ideal option for the industrial automation of applications.

 

 

Industrial PoE Switch

 

 

 

  • Ports:8 10/100/1000Base-T + 3 100/1000Base-X SFP
  • Type of Switch: Managed
  • Standards:IEEE 802.3af/at
  • PoE Budget:180W
  • Input Power:24/48VDC redundant dual
  • Operating Temp:-40 to 75°C

Industrial Ethernet Extenders

Ethernet can be used as the electrical and data circuitry to a networking environment but at the same time, it comes with a standard 100-meter limitation. Units such as the IVC-2002 allow network administrators to bypass the 100 meter Ethernet limitation.  The IVC-2002 is resistant to electromagnetic interference and withstands surges that could occur in industrial plants or traffic control cabinets. This unit operates efficiently in varying temperatures ranging from -40 to 75 degrees C, allowing for the deployment at any location.

Industrial Ethernet Extender

  • Speed:4 10/100TX to 1 BNC/RJ11
  • Distance:4km
  • Fiber Connection: BNC/RJ11
  • Operating Temp:-40 to 75°C

Industrial environments can reliably obtain fast transmission speeds even in copper-based networks. Versa Technology’s VX-VEB160G4 (V2) is one of the fastest Ethernet Extenders available on the market and can achieve transmission speeds of up to 300Mbps (Downstream: 190 Mbps/Upstream: 110 Mbps). These units provide a cost-effective alternative to fiber deployment delivering fast transmission rates using existing copper lines.

Industrial Ethernet Extender

 

 

 

  • Interface:4 x 10/100/1000Base-T, 1 x VDSL2
  • Speed DS / US:190Mbps / 110Mbps
  • Power Supply:12VDC over 2.1mm DC Jack
  • Power Consumption:5 Watts Max.
  • Operating Temperature:-40°C to 75°C
  • Standard: IEEE 802.3 compliant
  • Distance:9,000 ft

Industrial Media Converter

It’s not uncommon for IIoT devices to function in hybrid copper and fiber networks. Media converters such as the IMC-1000 can provide media conversion between an electrical 10/100/1000base-T cable and an optical 1000/1000Base-X Ethernet. These units are housed in DIN rail or wall mountable encasements that can withstand harsh industrial environments, such as industrial networking and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). These units are ideal but not limited to military and utility market applications where environmental conditions exceed commercial product specifications.

Industrial Media Converter

  • Speed: 10/100/1000Base-T to 100/1000Base-X
  • Mode: Multi-Mode (MM), Single-Mode (SM)
  • Wavelength: 1310nm (MM, SM)
  • Distance: 500M (MM), 20KM/40KM (SM)
  • Fiber Connection:SC
  • Operating Temp:-10 to 60°C

[1] http://www.cmo.com/articles/2015/4/13/mind-blowing-stats-internet-of-things-iot.html

 

VX-AP1AC

 

XDSL speeds

Different xDSL Equipment Overview

DSL has come a long way since its humble ADSL beginnings. The following is the final part in The History of DSL Trilogy. If you missed the Part I discussing the history of DSL, click here.  For a quick overview  of the 6 xDSL technologies in use today, visit Part II of the series.  Receive a Complementary Consultation

Equipment Used For DSL

There are a range of products on the market that deploy DSL services. The following are a few examples of Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexers (DSLAMs) and modems that deliver DSL broadband. Visit Part II of this series to learn more about the different types of DSL.

ADSL/2/2+ DSLAMs

Some ADSL DSLAMs are compatible with all three ADSL standards such as the VX-1000HDX and the VX-1000MDX.
best DSLAM

The VX-1000HDX ADSL2+ IP DSLAM unit from Versa Technology is a mini-DSLAM designed for the deployment of access networks.

 
VX-1000MDX

The VX-1000MDX ADSL2+ IP DSLAM unit from Versa Technology is a mini-DSLAM that supports ADSL, ADSL2/2+ AnnexA and AnnexM.

VDSL/VDSL2 DSLAMs

Some VDSL2 IP DSLAMs such as the VX-M2024S and the VX-MD4024 come with ADSL2/2+ ports for added flexibility.  
VX-M2024S VDSL2 DSLAM

The VX-M2024S from Versa Technology is a 1.5U compact 24-port VDSL2 IP DSLAM with 2 Gigabit Ethernet Combo interfaces and built-in POTS/ISDN splitter.

VX-MD4024 VDSL2 DSLAM

The VX-MD4024 is a rack-mountable VDSL2 IP DSLAM. The unit supports two Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) trunk interfaces and 24 VDSL2 ports (ADSLx backward compatible).

VDSL2 Modems

Many VDSL2 modems offers ADSL2+ fallback such as the VX-VER522.
vx-ver522-main-viewWM

Versa Technology's VDSL2 with ADSL2+ fall back 802.11n router has integrated wireless 802.11n draft 2.0 technology, making it possible to provide high-speed wireless data rates of up to 300mbps and superior wireless coverage.

ADSL2/2+

Most ADSL2+ modems support ADSL2 fallback such as theVX-VER170S.  
vx-ver170s-frontWM

The VX -VER170S ADSL2+ bridge/router from Versa Technology provides advanced long Reach/Rate, and crosstalk-free technology.

Limiting Factors

One of the main limiting factors to DSL services is aging copper lines. Companies that seek to compete at fiber speeds like Verizon Communications and AT&T, have been accused of allowing their copper lines to deteriorate so as to replace them with fiber. In fact, Verizon communications has recently sold its wireline liabilities to Frontier Communications, a smaller telecom company that delivers DSL broadband to rural cities.  Another limiting factor to DSL is that subscriber speed directly correlates with how far away subscribers reside from the exchange.

The Future of xDSL

Even though DSL subscribers are declining, ISPs still desire to retain the profitability of copper lines. ISPS are investing in researching new vectoring methods to transmit broadband at faster speeds.  As WinterGreen research reports: “Copper represents an installed infrastructure worth trillions and too expensive to just replace. Fiber is too expensive to use it to replace all the copper.” The utility of copper lines will continue to defy the laws of obsolescence with improved vectoring methods such as G.fast and XG.Fast, which have successfully achieved downlink speeds of 1 Gbps and 5 Gbps respectively. Openreach has already begun trial test runs with the new chipset to determine its integrity in real world settings.  G.fast is still considered bleeding edge technology, but supporting standards such as G.inp promise to stabilize the consistency of signal speeds. To learn more about G.imp click here.  
 

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